By surprising coincidences, if the dozenal number system is used to express the speed of light in vacuum and the quantum of action as the defining constants such that these constants are strictly multiples of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities, it is possible to construct a coherent unit system in which not only the constant that was used in the definition but also the Rydberg constant, the Bohr radius, the unified atomic mass unit, and half the value of the Planck length can be approximated to about or within an error of 2 per gross (11/2%) by a multiple of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities.
In that case, many other physical constants, including the charge and mass of an electron, the fine structure constant, the molar volume of an ideal gas under standard conditions, the black-body radiation at the ice point, the density and surface tension of water, and others, can be approximated by multiples of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities. Moreover, by adding the Boltzmann constant and using it in the definition of thermodynamic temperature, the gas constant of an ideal gas can be approximated by a multiple of an integer power of twelve of the unit quantity and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and the specific heat of water can be approximated by multiples of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities with a factor 2 remaining.
For putting these coincidences to use, the dozenal number system is the only choice.
We define the Universal Unit System as “the unit system that is constructed by using the dozenal number system and the speed of light in vacuum, the quantum of action, and the Boltzmann constant as the defining constants in such a way that these constants become strict multiples of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities, and the Rydberg constant, the unified atomic mass unit, the Bohr radius, and half the value of the Planck length can be approximated by multiples of integer powers of twelve of the unit quantities”.
The Harmonic System is conceptually designed and strictly defined as following:
'Conceptual design' is the system design that prescribes the rough quantity of the units to constitute a unit system conceptually.
The Harmonic System concept is '35G=c0=ħ=kB=ZP=1' .(See also here(Wikipedia Talk:Planck_units).)
The Harmonic System is conceptually designed to express the following quantities as multiples of integer powers of twelve of the corresponding unit quantities.
- 2E;(35.) times Newtonian gravitational constant (35G)
- speed of light in a vacuum (c0)
- quantum of action (ħ)
- Boltzmann constant (kB)
- Planck impedance (ZP)
'Strict definition' is the system definition that corresponds strictly to the theoretical equations that a unit system is based on.
The Harmonic System is strictly defined to express the following quantities as the corresponding unit quantities.
- 100,1700; cycle over Rydberg constant
- 10;-8 times speed of light in a vacuum
- 10;+26; times quantum of action
- 10;+20; times Boltzmann constant
- Planck impedance
All the units which have special names peculiar to the Harmonic System are listed as following:
harmon [hm] - 272.352206 mm, 10.7225278 inches (8 / 9 feet, difference 0.52%)
This is slightly shorter than 1/1000,0000; of the quadrant meridian length of the Earth(=279.136507 mm, difference 2.5%).
Volume of a cube whose side is half harmon (i.e. cubic half harmon) is 2/3 U.S. liquid gallon.(difference 0.06%) Water in this volume includes about 100;10; H2O molecules.(see section 3.3)100. yards equal 240; harmons.(difference 0.08%)
1 megalithic yard equals about 3 harmons.
nic [nc] - 390.625115 ms (25./64. SI seconds, almost exact)
This is almost 1/1000; of the difference of the length of one Julian year and one mean tropical year.(difference 0.14% at the beginning of year 1900.)
100,000. SI seconds(difference 2.8%), 10,0000; nics(almost exact), and 1 ⅛ days are nearly equal.
1 harmon / nic (=atol [al]) equals 2.51 km / hour. (almost exact)
See also chapter 4.
looloh [ℓℓ] - 131.829289 g, 4.65014133 ounces
This is slightly lighter than 1/100; of the mass of water in one cubic harmon capacity.(difference 6.4%)
On the other hand, this is slightly heavier than 1/100; of the mass of ice in the same capacity.(difference 2.4%)
'looloh' is named for the fact that it is 100;10; times unified atomic mass unit.(almost exact) It means that Avogadro constant is expressed by 100;10; times unit quantity(=reciprocal universal mol) of the Harmonic System.
The universal gravitational force between 2 mass points 5 loolohs and 7 loolohs put unit length apart is 10;-8 times force unit.When we use the Harmonic System, temperature rises twice the unit temperature if we give water of the unit mass 'looloh' heat of the unit energy.(almost exact)
nohm [Ωn] - 29.979245816 Ω(almost exact)
This is the Planck impedance itself. The unit name 'nohm' is an abbreviation of 'natural ohm'.
The coulomb force between unit electric charges put unit length apart is 10;8 times force unit.Relations of the electric and magnetic quantities in the Universal Unit System are shown as follows, where Ω2 is total solid angle of the spherical surface(see this ref):
These difference percentages show us that the Harmonic System is a kind of dozenalized metric system. (The quadrant meridian length of the Earth ≒ 10;7 harmons ≒ 10.7 meters, 1 ⅛ days ≒ 10;5 nics ≒ 10.5 seconds, water density ≒ 10;2 loolohs / harmon3 ≒ 10.3 kilograms / meter3)
(See also '[Addition]' part of this article.)
Using the Harmonic System, many constants can be approximated by Ω0n×10;m times the unit quantity, where Ω0 = 2, n = 0 or ±1 and m ∈ integer. The quadrant meridian length and gravitational acceleration of the Earth, the density and specific heat of water, which are used in the past for definition of units, are also included in these constants.
The Harmonic System distinguishes 'calendar time' from 'physical time' as a different concept.
'nic' is the physical time unit of the Harmonic System, and is on the natural time scale ladder of 'powers of twelve'.
The greatest common divisor of one tropical year and one day is 2-7 days, which is also equivalent to about 1000; nics.
This quantity is the coordinated mean rotation angle of the Earth derived by using the direction of the Sun as a coordinate origin, and its dimension is not time but plain angle.
The dimension of ratio of physical time and calendar time is [time / plain angle], which means the period length of one mean solar day. Because of tidal friction, this length is not constant and becomes longer little by little.The unit that should be dozenal divisions of mean solar day is calendar time rather than physical time.
Because physical length of mean solar day is not constant but variable, the relation of mean solar day and any unit of physical time will collapse by all means in the future.
'day', as a unit, is equivalent to plain angle of total circumference.
The Harmonic System adopts 'day' as a unit of calendar time corresponding to one mean solar day, and uses the calendar time unit structure shown on the right figure.
Many of the constants introduced in Wikipedia Talk:Planck_units often have orders 8n-1. Therefore, it is convenient to use the factor U(=10;8(12.8)) to make the units of the Universal Unit System into human scale. The factor U can be regarded as a conversion factor between atomic scale, human scale, and cosmic scale. Since power 8(=23) is a power of 2, the decimal myriad system has affinity for our system. So, we propose the duodecimal myriad system in replacing ten/hundred with dozen/gross. Larger numbers consist of uni(1),di(2),ter(3),tetra(4),penta(5),hexa(6),hepta(7), lli(0),on(+), and reciprocals are expressed by replacing on(+) with no(-).
When designing number counting system, we must make sure that the same expression does not represent different numbers for decimal and dozenal context. Since Systematic Dozenal Nomenclature fulfills this requirement, it can be used in combination with the Harmonic System. When units of the Harmonic System are combined with Systematic Dozenal Nomenclature, only powers divisible with 4 or -1, -2, and -3 should be used. In this situation, dozen(10;), gross(100;) and doz gross(1000;) are used in substitution for powers 1, 2, and 3.