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In number theory, quadratic integers are a generalization of the integers to quadratic fields. Quadratic integers are algebraic integers of degree two, that is, solutions of equations of the form

$ 1=x^2+Bx+C=0 $

with $ B $ and $ C $ integers. When algebraic integers are considered, the usual integers are often called rational integers.

Common examples of quadratic integers are the square roots of integers, such as $ \sqrt{2} $, and the complex number $ 1=i=\sqrt{–1} $, which generates the Gaussian integers. Another common example is the non-real cubic root of unity $ \frac{-1+\sqrt{–3}}{2} $, which generates the Eisenstein integers.

Quadratic integers occur in the solutions of many Diophantine equations, such as Pell's equations, and other questions related to integral quadratic forms. The study of rings of quadratic integers is basic for many questions of algebraic number theory.

HistoryEdit

Medieval Indian mathematicians had already discovered a multiplication of quadratic integers of the same D, which allowed them to solve some cases of Pell's equation.

The characterization of the quadratic integers was first given by Richard Dedekind in 10EE.

Definition Edit

A quadratic integer is an algebraic integer of degree two. More explicitly, it is a complex number $ x=\frac{-B\pm\sqrt{B^2-4C}}{2} $, which solves an equation of the form $ 1=x^2+Bx+C=0 $, with B and C integers. Each quadratic integer that is not an integer lies in a uniquely determined quadratic field $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $, the extension of $ \mathbb{Q} $ generated by the square-root of the unique square-free integer D that satisfies $ 1=B^2-4C=DE^2 $ for some integer $ E $.

The quadratic integers (including the ordinary integers), which belong to a quadratic field $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $, form an integral domain called the ring of integers of $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}). $

Here and in the following, $ D $ is supposed to be a square-free integer. This does not restrict the generality, as the equality $ 1=\sqrt{a^2D}=a\sqrt{D} $ (for any positive integer $ a $) implies $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D})=\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{a^2D}). $

Every quadratic integer may be written Template:Math, where Template:Math and Template:Math are integers, and where Template:Math is defined by:

$ \omega = \begin{cases} \sqrt{D} & \mbox{if }D \equiv 2, 3 \pmod{4} \\ {{1 + \sqrt{D}} \over 2} & \mbox{if }D \equiv 1 \pmod{4} \end{cases} $

(as Template:Math has been supposed square-free the case $ D \equiv 0\pmod{4} $ is impossible, since it would imply that D would be divisible by the square 4).[1]

Although the quadratic integers belonging to a given quadratic field form a ring, the set of all quadratic integers is not a ring, because it is not closed under addition, as $ \sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3} $ is an algebraic integer, which has a minimal polynomial of degree four.

Norm and conjugation Edit

A quadratic integer in $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $ may be written

Template:Math,

where Template:Math and Template:Math are either both integers, or, only if Template:Math, both halves of odd integers. The norm of such a quadratic integer is

Template:Math.

The norm of a quadratic integer is always an integer. If Template:Math, the norm of a quadratic integer is the square of its absolute value as a complex number (this is false if Template:Math). The norm is a completely multiplicative function, which means that the norm of a product of quadratic integers is always the product of their norms.

Every quadratic integer Template:Math has a conjugate

$ \overline{a+b\sqrt{D}} = a-b\sqrt{D}. $

An algebraic integer has the same norm as its conjugate, and this norm is the product of the algebraic integer and its conjugate. The conjugate of a sum or a product of algebraic integers is the sum or the product (respectively) of the conjugates. This means that the conjugation is an automorphism of the ring of the integers of $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}). $

UnitsEdit

A quadratic integer is a unit in the ring of the integers of $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $ if and only if its norm is Template:Math or Template:Math. In the first case its multiplicative inverse is its conjugate. It is the opposite of its conjugate in the second case.

If Template:Math, the ring of the integers of $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $ has at most six units. In the case of the Gaussian integers (Template:Math), the four units are Template:Math. In the case of the Eisenstein integers (Template:Math), the six units are Template:Math. For all other negative Template:Math, there are only two units, which are Template:Math and Template:Math.

If Template:Math, the ring of the integers of $ \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{D}) $ has infinitely many units that are equal to Template:Math, where Template:Math is an arbitrary integer, and Template:Math is a particular unit called a fundamental unit. Given a fundamental unit Template:Math, there are three other fundamental units, its conjugate $ \overline{u}, $ and also $ -u $ and $ -\overline{u}. $ Commonly, one calls the fundamental unit, the unique one which has an absolute value greater than 1 (as a real number). It is the unique fundamental unit that may be written Template:Math, with Template:Math and Template:Math positive (integers or halves of integers).

The fundamental units for the 10 smallest positive square-free Template:Math are Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math (the golden ratio), Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math, Template:Math. For larger Template:Math, the coefficients of the fundamental unit may be very large. For example, for Template:Math, the fundamental units are respectively Template:Math, Template:Math and Template:Math.

Quadratic integer rings Edit

Every square-free integer (different from 0 and 1) Template:Math defines a quadratic integer ring, which is the integral domain of the algebraic integers contained in $ \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D}). $ It is the set Template:Math, where Template:Math is defined as above. It is called the ring of integers of Template:Math) and often denoted $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D})}. $ By definition, it is the integral closure of Template:Math in $ \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D}). $

The properties of the quadratic integers (and more generally of algebraic integers) has been a long-standing problem, which has motivated the elaboration of the notions of ring and ideal. In particular the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is not true in many rings of quadratic integers. However, there is a unique factorization for ideals, which is expressed by the fact that every ring of algebraic integers is a Dedekind domain.

Quadratic integer rings and their associated quadratic fields are thus commonly the starting examples of most studies of algebraic number fields.[2]

The quadratic integer rings divide in two classes depending on the sign of Template:Math. If Template:Math, all elements of $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D})} $ are real, and the ring is a real quadratic integer ring. If Template:Math, the only real elements of $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D})} $ are the ordinary integers, and the ring is a complex quadratic integer ring.

For real quadratic integer rings, the ideal class number, which measures the failure of unique factorization, is given in OEIS A003649; for the imaginary case, they are given in OEIS A000924.

Examples of complex quadratic integer rings Edit

File:Punktraster.svg
File:EisensteinPrimes-01.svg

For Template:Mvar < 0, ω is a complex (imaginary or otherwise non-real) number. Therefore, it is natural to treat a quadratic integer ring as a set of algebraic complex numbers.

  • A classic example is $ \mathbf{Z}[\sqrt{-1}] $, the Gaussian integers, which was introduced by Carl Gauss around 1800 to state his biquadratic reciprocity law.[3]
  • The elements in $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{-3})} = \mathbf{Z}\left[{{1 + \sqrt{-3}} \over 2}\right] $ are called Eisenstein integers.

Both rings mentioned above are rings of integers of cyclotomic fields Q4) and Q3) correspondingly. In contrast, Z[[[:Template:Sqrt]]] is not even a Dedekind domain.

Both above examples are principal ideal rings and also Euclidean domains for the norm. This is not the case for

$ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{-5})} = \mathbf{Z}\left[\sqrt{-5}\right], $

which is not even a unique factorization domain. This can be shown as follows.

In $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{-5})}, $ we have

$ 9 = 3\cdot3 = (2+\sqrt{-5})(2-\sqrt{-5}). $

The factors 3, $ 2+\sqrt{-5} $ and $ 2-\sqrt{-5} $ are irreducible, as they have all a norm of 9, and if they were not irreducible, they would have a factor of norm 3, which is impossible, the norm of an element different of Template:Math being at least 4. Thus the factorization of 9 into irreducible factors is not unique.

The ideals $ \langle 3, 1+\sqrt{-5}\rangle $ and $ \langle 3, 1-\sqrt{-5}\rangle $ are not principal, as a simple computation shows that their product is the ideal generated by 3, and, if they were principal, this would imply that 3 would not be irreducible.

Examples of real quadratic integer rings Edit

File:Golden spiral in rectangles.svg

For Template:Math, Template:Math is a positive irrational real number, and the corresponding quadratic integer ring is a set of algebraic real numbers. The solutions of the Pell's equation Template:Math, a Diophantine equation that has been widely studied, are the units of these rings, for Template:Math.

Principal rings of quadratic integers Edit

Unique factorization property is not always verified for rings of quadratic integers, as seen above for the case of Template:Math. However, as for every Dedekind domain, a ring of quadratic integers is a unique factorization domain if and only if it is a principal ideal domain. This occurs if and only if the class number of the corresponding quadratic field is one.

The imaginary rings of quadratic integers that are principal ideal rings have been completely determined. These are $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D})} $ for

Template:Math.

This result was first conjectured by Gauss and proven by Kurt Heegner, although Heegner's proof was not believed until Harold Stark gave a later proof in 1967. (See Stark–Heegner theorem.) This is a special case of the famous class number problem.

There are many known positive integers Template:Math, for which the ring of quadratic integers is a principal ideal ring. However, the complete list is not known; it is not even known if the number of these principal ideal rings is finite or not.

Euclidean rings of quadratic integers Edit

Template:See also When a ring of quadratic integers is a principal ideal domain, it is interesting to know whether it is a Euclidean domain. This problem has been completely solved as follows.

Equipped with the norm $ N(a + b\sqrt{D}) = a^2 - Db^2, $ as an Euclidean function, $ \mathcal{O}_{\mathbf{Q}(\sqrt{D})} $ is a Euclidean domain for negative Template:Math when

Template:Math,[5]

and, for positive Template:Math, when

Template:Math Template:OEIS.

There is no other ring of quadratic integers that is Euclidean with the norm as a Euclidean function.[6]

For negative Template:Math, a ring of quadratic integers is Euclidean if and only if the norm is a Euclidean function for it. It follows that, for

Template:Math,

the four corresponding rings of quadratic integers are among the rare known examples of principal ideal domains that are not Euclidean domains.

On the other hand, the generalized Riemann hypothesis implies that a ring of real quadratic integers that is a principal ideal domain is also a Euclidean domain for some Euclidean function, which can indeed differ from the usual norm.[7] The values D = 14, 69 were the first for which the ring of quadratic integers was proven to be Euclidean, but not norm-Euclidean.[8][9]

Notes Edit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. M. Artin, Algebra (2nd ed) Ch 13
  3. Dummit, pg. 229
  4. Template:Citation
  5. Dummit, pg. 272
  6. Template:Cite book
  7. P. Weinberger, On Euclidean rings of algebraic integers. In: Analytic Number Theory (St. Louis, 1972), Proc. Sympos. Pure Math. 24(1973), 321–332.
  8. M. Harper, $ \Bbb {Z}[\sqrt{14}] $ is Euclidean. Can. J. Math. 56(2004), 55–70.
  9. David A. Clark, A quadratic field which is Euclidean but not norm-Euclidean, Manuscripta Mathematica, 83(1994), 327–330 [1]

References Edit

Further readingEdit

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